3. Sewage Treatment Plant

Sewage Treatment Plant

City waste water collection and drainage systems called sewers. The drainage from these sewers became known as sewage and treatment of sewage evolved into a standardized sequence of primary treatment, followed by secondary treatment, and ending with disinfection. A typical municipal sewage treatment plant includes primary treatment to remove solid material; secondary treatment to remove dissolved and suspended organic material, and disinfection to kill disease-causing micro-organisms.

4. Water Treatment & Recycling Systems

      A. Reverse osmosis (RO)

RO Plant

RO is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove larger particles from water/waste water. In reverse osmosis, an applied pressure is used to overcome osmotic pressure, a colligative property that is driven by chemical potential. Reverse osmosis can remove many types of molecules and ions from liquids, including bacteria, and is used in both industrial processes and the production of potable water.

      B. Ultrafiltration (UF)


UF is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane. Suspended solids and solutes of high molecular weight are retained in the so-called retentate, while water and low molecular weight solutes pass through the membrane in the permeate. This separation process is used in industry and research for purifying and concentrating macromolecular (103 - 106 Da) solutions, especially protein solutions. Ultrafiltration is not fundamentally different from microfiltration. Both of these separate based on size exclusion or particle capture.

      C. Demineralised Water (DM)

Demineralised Water

Demineralised water also known as Deionized water, water that has had its mineral ions removed. Mineral ions such as cations of sodium, calcium, iron, copper, etc and anions such as chloride, sulphate, nitrate, etc are common ions present in water. Deionization is a physical process which uses specially-manufactured ion exchange resins which provides ion exchange site for the replacement of the mineral salts in water with water forming H+ and OH- ions. Because the majority of water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water, and this process is quick and without scale buildup.

      D. Softener Water

Softener Water

The Water Softening Plants are designed to produce treated water to suit for various applications. Treated water is of consistency quality with low residual hardness throughout the service cycle. The high synthetic resin is used to exchange Sodium ion with hardness forming Calcium and Magnesium ions. After producing desired output, the resin is regenerated with (NaCI) Sodium Chloride solution after which unit is again ready to deliver next batch. The Water Softening Plant units are available with different models. The difference between these models is in the capacity of the resin used for each model. These units are easy to operate and maintenance free.

5. Bio-Composting Plants

Bio-Composting Plants

Bio-Compost is organic matter that has been decomposed and recycled as a fertilizer and soil amendment. Compost is a key ingredient in organic farming. At the simplest level, the process of composting simply requires making a heap of wetted organic matter known as green waste (leaves, food waste, and press mud) and waiting for the materials to break down into humus after a period of desire cycle. Modern, methodical composting is a multi-step, closely monitored process with measured inputs of water, air, and carbon- and nitrogen-rich materials. The decomposition process is aided by shredding the plant matter, adding water and ensuring proper aeration by regularly turning the mixture. Worms and fungi further break up the material. Aerobic bacteria and fungi manage the chemical process by converting the inputs into heat, carbon dioxide and ammonium. The ammonium is the form of nitrogen (NH4) used by plants. When available ammonium is not used by plants it is further converted by bacteria into nitrates.

6. Sludge Treatment

Sludge Treatment

The sludge generated in the primary and secondary treatments is a suspension of solids in concentrations ranging from about 1 to 10%, depending on the treatment from where it originates. It contains almost the entire organic load removed from the treated wastewater. Although it is in a different form, it is organic matter that may eventually decompose, be offensive and be a contaminant if not treated properly.